Volume 51, Number 6, November-December 2002
|Page(s)||479 - 491|
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official methods of analysis, 14th ed., AOAC, Washington, DC, 1990.
- Beede D.K., Collier R.J., Potential nutritional strategies for intensively managed cattle during thermal stress, J. Anim. Sci. 62 (1986) 543-554.
- Berman A., Folman Y., Kaim M., Mamen M., Herz Z., Wolfenson D., Arieli A., Graber Y., Upper critical temperatures and forced ventilation effects for high yielding dairy cows in a subtropical climate, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 1488-1495.
- Bouraoui R., Majdoub A., Djemali M., Étude de l'effet du stress thermique dans les conditions tunisiennes à travers le calcul de l'index température-humidité, Book of Abstracts, EAAP-50th annual meeting, Zurich, August, 22-26, 1999, p. 217.
- Collier R.J., Beede D.K., Thatcher W.W., Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production, J. Dairy Sci. 65 (1982) 2213-2227.
- Du Preez J.H., Giesecke W.H., Hattingh P.J., Heat stress in dairy cattle and other livestock under Southern African conditions. I. Temperature-humidity index mean values during the four main seasons, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 57 (1990) 77-86.
- Du Preez J.H., Hatting P.J., Giesecke W.H., Eisenberg B.E., Heat stress in dairy cattle and other livestock under Southern African conditions. III. Monthly temperature-humidity index mean values and their significance in the performance of dairy cattle, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 57 (1990) 243-248.
- Emery R.S., Feeding for increased milk protein, J. Dairy Sci. 61 (1978) 825-828.
- Ingraham R.H., Stanley R.W., Wagner W.C., Seasonal effect of the tropical climate on shaded and nonshaded cows as measured by rectal temperature, adrenal cortex hormones, thyroid hormone, and milk production, Am. J. Vet. Res. 40 (1979) 1792-1797.
- Johnson H.D., Ragsdale A.C., Berry I.L., Shanklin M.D., Temperature-humidity effects including influence of acclimation in fed and water consumption of Holstein cattle, University of Missouri, Research Bulletin, 1963, No. 846.
- Johnson H.D., Environmental management of cattle to minimize the stress of climate changes, Int. J. Biometeor. 24 (Suppl. 7, Part 2) (1980) 65-78.
- Johnson H.D., Physiological responses and productivity of cattle, in: Yousef M.K. (Ed.), Stress physiology in livestock. Basic principles, Vol. 1, 4-19, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1985, pp. 4-19.
- Kabuga J.D., Sarpong K., Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate, Int. J. Biometeorol. 34 (1991) 226-230.
- Kibler H.H., Environmental physiology and shelter engineering. LXVII. Thermal effects of various temperature-humidity combinations on Holstein cattle as measured by eight physiological responses, Res. Bull. Missouri Agric. Exp. Station, 1964, p. 862.
- Knapp D.M., Grummer R.R., Response of lactating dairy cows to fat supplementation during heat stress, J. Dairy Sci. 74 (1991) 2573-2579.
- Lemerle C., Goddard M.E., Assessment of heat stress in dairy cattle in Papua New Guineam, Anim. Health Prod. 18 (1986) 232-242.
- Magdub A., Johnson H.D., Belyea R.L., Effect on environmental heat and dietary fibre on thyroid physiology of lactating cows, Int. J. Biometeorol. 25 (1982) 2323-2329.
- Mallonee P.G., Beede D.K., Collier R.J., Wilcox C.J., Production and physiological responses of dairy cows to varying dietary potassium during heat stress, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 1479-1487.
- McDowell R.E., Physiological approaches to animal climatology, J. Hered. 49 (1958) 52-61.
- McDowell R.E., Moody E.G., Van Soest P.J., Lehmann R.P., Ford G.L., Effect of heat stress on energy and water utilization of lactating cows, J. Dairy Sci. 52 (1969) 188-194.
- Mohamed M.E., Johnson H.D., Effect of growth hormone on milk yields and related physiological functions of Holstein cows exposed to heat stress, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 1123-1133.
- Moran J.B., The influence of season and management system on intake and productivity of confined dairy cows in a Mediterranean climate, Anim. Prod. 49 (1989) 339-344.
- Muller C.J.C., Botha J.A., Smith W.A., Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a Mediterranean climate in South Africa. 1. Feed and water intake, milk production and milk composition, S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 24 (1994) 49-55.
- National Research Council (NRC), Effect of environment on nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 6th ed., Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, 1981.
- Nickerson S.C., Mastitis management under hot, humid conditions, Proceeding of the dairy herd management conference, Macon, GA, February 9-11, 1987, pp. 32-38.
- Rodriguez L.W., Mekonnen G., Wilcox C.J., Martin F.G., Krienk W.A., Effects of relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature, pregnancy and stage of lactation on milk composition and yield, J. Dairy Sci. 68 (1985) 973-978.
- Roman-Ponce H., Thatcher W.W., Buffington D.D., Wilcox C.J., Van Horn H.H., Physiological and production responses of dairy cattle to shade structure in a subtropical environment, J. Dairy Sci. 60 (1977) 424-430.
- Roman-Ponce H., Thatcher W.W., Collier R.J., Wilcox C.J., Hormonal responses of lactating dairy cattle to TRH and ACTH in a shade management system within a subtropical environment, Theriogenology 16 (1981) 131-138.
- Roman-Ponce H., Thatcher W.W., Wilcox C.J., Hormonal interrelationships and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows to a shade management system in a subtropical environment, Theriogenology 16 (1981) 139-154.
- SAS, User's guides: statistics, Version 5 Edition, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA, 1985.
- Sevcik Dan M., Nutritional issues relating to high yielding dairy cows under heat stress, Proceeding of the first annual meeting of animal production under arid conditions, Department of Animal Production Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, UAE University, United Arab Emirates, 6 May 1996.
- Silanikove N., Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants, Livest. Prod. Sci. 67 (2000) 1-18.
- Thompson G.E., Review of the progress of dairy science climatic physiology of cattle, J. Dairy Res. 40 (1973) 441-473.
- West J.W., Nutritional strategies for managing the heat - stressed dairy cow, J. Anim. Sci. 77 (Suppl. 2) (1999) 21-35.
- Wiersma F., Temperature-humidity index table for dairy producer to estimate heat stress for dairy cows, Department of Agricultural Engineering, The University of Arizona, Tucson, 1990.
- Wise M.E., Armstrong D.V., Huber J.T., Hunter R., Wiersma F., Hormonal alterations in the lactating dairy cow in response to thermal stress, J. Dairy Sci. 71 (1988) 2480-2485.
Copyright INRA, EDP Sciences